The morphological diversity and stratigraphic distribution of filamentous microfossils in the Vendian sediments of the Nepa Regional Stage of the Siberian Platform were analyzed. Five genera (Nepia, Talakania, Oscillatoriopsis, Obruchevella, Siphonophicus) were identified and corresponded to the modern hormogonium cyanobacteria. Monographical description was made and reproductive cycle was reconstructed for new species of oscillatorian cyanobacteria Nepia calicina Golubkova, gen. et sp. nov. Talakania obscura species corresponded to the modern cyanobacteria Schizothrix sp. and Microcoleus sp.